Lets learn what is dental implant and what options do we have when we need dental implants.
A dental implant is an artificial replacement of a tooth root. At the place where a tooth needs to be pulled, it is usually possible to place an implant with a crown as a replacement. This is usually a helical titanium structure, covered or not with a special coating. Every brand implant has its specific form of implant.
A dental implant (Latin implantare, German ‘planting’) is an inserted into the jaw bone “alloplastic assembly part” (implant). The field of dentistry, which deals with the insertion (insertion) of dental implants in the jawbone, is referred to as implantology (from Greek λόγος lógos, word ‘teaching’). Due to their usefulness as carriers of dental prostheses, dental implants assume the function of artificial tooth roots. For this purpose, they are either screwed or inserted into the jawbone (enossal implants) by means of a screw thread. They combine with the surrounding bone within 3 to 6 months to form a solid, extremely load-bearing carrier unit (osseointegration).
From the implant form depends on the surgical insertion technique. The shape of the abutment, the implant part protruding from the jawbone, results in the fabrication of the superstructure, the denture to be integrated on the implants. Since the 1980s dental implants are usually made of titanium, but also of ceramic materials or plastic (PEEK)
Types of dental implants
In the early days of the dental implants, so-called blade implants and transmandibular implants were used. The implant body of such a leaf implant is a flat surface. The transmandibular implants go completely through the jaw (lower jaw). Removing this type of implants is very complicated.
Now the so-called screw implants are mainly used. It was the screw implant of the Swedish professor Brånemark who made this type of implant so popular, partly because of the good clinical results and the ease of placing this implant. The greatest advance in implantology, however, was not so much the shape of the implant but the coating of the part that comes into contact with the bone. The big problem is the growth and ingrowth of bone on the implant.
Nowadays, a distinction is also made between the so-called one- and two-phase implants. The difference is in the treatment phases:
With the one-stage implant, the implant is placed in one treatment and consists of a part that is anchored in the bone and a part that protrudes above the gums. These two parts form a whole and after a certain period a crown is made on the protruding part.
With the two-phase implant, the implant is placed in the bone in the first phase and then covered with gums again. A few months later, when the implant has grown into the bone, the second phase follows, where a so-called (healing) abutment is placed on the ingrown implant. After a few weeks the crown is made on the abutment.
Dental Implant brands
In the course of time, different types – and also brands – implants have emerged. Despite the fact that nowadays mainly screw implants are used, there has been a proliferation of implant manufacturers. Unfortunately it has never been possible to make a standard for implant parts, which means that screws, nuts, screwdrivers can differ per brand and also per type of the same brand.
The disadvantage of this is that if after years of functioning a part of the implant breaks down, the replacement of this part may be difficult or impossible because the part is no longer available.
In orthodontics, mini-implants are sometimes used that are placed in the bone. These implants form anchors to exert forces to move teeth in the desired direction.